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Science

What is the science behind it all?

Fasting

Caloric restriction is often referred to as the most proven way to extend life, with some studies showing an 83% increase in lifespan. (1) Cutting your calorie intake by 15% whilst also using supplements can protect against cancer, diabetes and dementia. (2)

 

Intermittent fasting is thought to reduce age related diseases, such as cancer. (3) It has also been shown to improve heart health, cholesterol, blood pressure, brain health, oxidative stress, immunity and insulin sensitivity, without leaving you hungry. (4)(5)(6)(7) Additionally, fasting has been proven to be a good way to lose weight, whilst keeping your muscle mass. (8)

 

Exercise

Regular exercise reduces the chance of an early death. Exercise helps with quality of life too, preventing chronic diseases, depression and frailty. (1)(2)(3)

Exercise can boost your NAD levels, increase the size of your brain and in turn, boost our memory. (4)(5) It seems that interval training has superior health benefits to other types of exercise. (6)

(1)(2). (3)(4)(5), (6) 

N A D

NAD, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is so important to life, that without it, you would die within seconds. Your mitochondria, which are responsible for energy production, use NAD as fuel. (1) NAD is also the fuel for your Sirtuins, you can find out more about Sirtuins below. NAD is crucial for telomeres. They are the caps on your DNA strands that protect your chromosomes, and shortened telomeres are linked to shorter lifespan.

NAD is a wonderful discovery and extremely important for ageing. Finding ways to boost your NAD levels has become central to longevity. (2)

There are two main issues with NAD. The first is that as we age, our natural levels of NAD decline, and it is believed that this is the reason for many age related diseases. (3)

The other problem with NAD, is that it is too large to enter your body. This is why we provide NMN, or nicotinamide mononucleotide, to raise your NAD levels. NMN is a direct precursor to NAD and is proven to raise NAD levels. (4, 5)

C D 3 8

Just as NAD decreases with age, CD38 increases as we age. To compound these issues, CD38 is an NADase, which means it reduces our NAD levels. So boosting NAD levels is less effective when CD38 is too high. (1) CD38 is inhibited by both Quercetin and Apigenin. (2)

Sirtuins

Sirtuins are a family of proteins that keep your cells healthy and promote DNA repair. Sirtuin activity decreases as you age, and increasing that sirtuin activity increases lifespan. (1)(2) 

The fuel that Sirtuins use is NAD, so to boost NAD levels we provide NMN. To activate the Sirtuins we provide resveratrol, a potent Sirtuin activator that has been shown to extend healthy lifespan. (3)

Apigenin

Apigenin is the most potent known inhibitor of CD38, and when administered, NAD+ levels increase. It reduces CD38 by around two thirds, which leads to a doubling in NAD+ levels. (1)

Apigenin can reduce anxiety without negative effects, as well as protect the brain from decline. (2)(3)(4) Apigenin is anti-inflammatory as well as anti-diabetic. (5)(6)

N M N

Nicotinamide mononucleotide, or NMN for short, is a derivative of Vitamin B3. In the body it is a precursor to NAD. If you’re unsure what NAD is, see above. Taking NMN as a supplement is safe, and it raises your NAD levels. (1-4)

NMN reverses vascular aging, stimulates blood vessel growth and boosts stamina and endurance. (5) NMN reduces the physical and neurological decline associated with ageing. (6-7)

Resveratrol

Resveratrol supplementation has been shown to increase lifespan. (1) Resveratrol is a potent Sirtuin activator. (2)

Resveratrol has similar effects on your body as a calorie restricted diet. (3)(4)(5) Resveratrol reduces your blood pressure, protects your brain and even has anti-cancer potential. (6-10)

T M G

We recommend TMG, particularly for those that take NMN. TMG, or trimethylglycine, acts as a methyl donor to ensure you get the full benefit from your NMN.

Sometimes referred to as betaine, TMG has anti-inflammatory properties, can boost your exercise performance and protects both your liver and your heart. (1-7)

A M P K

AMP-activated protein kinase, or AMPK, is an enzyme that is known to boost energy and balance hormones. It is often called the master regulator of metabolism. (1)

Cells activate AMPK when they are running low on energy, and AMPK is activated in tissues throughout the body following exercise or fasting. In response, AMPK alters the activity of many other genes and proteins, helping keep cells alive and functioning even when they’re running low on fuel. 

AMPK assists with autophagy, fat burning and turning nutrients into energy. Activating AMPK is key to longevity. (2-4)

Activating AMPK can be achieved via both lifestyle, for example high intensity exercise, and via supplementation, for example berberine. (5-6)

(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6)

Berberine

Berberine has anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. (1)(2)(3)(4) It has been shown to be as effective as metformin at controlling your blood sugars. (5)(6)(7) It decreases insulin resistance, making insulin more effective. It also helps your body break down sugars inside cells, and increases the amount of good bacteria in your gut. (8)(9)(10)

Berberine activates AMPK, one of the key longevity pathways. Berberine plays an important role in metabolism, lowering your LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, and protecting you from heart disease. (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)

Hyaluronic Acid

The average house mouse lives just 3 years. The naked mole rat lives on average until around 30 years old, the longest lived rodent by far.  Do Not Age Advisory Board member Dr Vera Gorbunova concludes that this may be because of their abundance of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid. Naked mole rats very, very rarely get cancer, and Vera and her team found that removing the high molecular weight hyaluronic acid from naked mole rats makes them more prone to cancer, similarly to their other rodent cousins. Thus it seems the more high molecular weight hyaluronic acid, the less likely the cancer risk. Hyaluronic acid has also been shown to have cancer fighting abilities in humans. (1)(2)(3)(4) Interestingly, high molecular weight hyaluronic acid promotes bodily repair over other molecular weight hyaluronic acid. (5) 

Skin aging is associated with a loss of skin moisture. The key molecule involved in skin moisture is hyaluronic acid, as it has a unique capacity to bind and retain water molecules. In basic terms the theory is that the higher your hyaluronic acid, the more moisture your skin will retain and therefore less aging of the skin. Functions of hyaluronic acid include hydration, lubrication of joints, and the framework for blood vessel formation. The size of hyaluronic acid is of critical importance for its various functions described above. Hyaluronic acid of high molecular size is present in intact tissues and has the potential to stop tumours growing as well as stopping your immune system from overreacting. Smaller polymers of hyaluronic acid are distress signals and potent inducers of inflammation and angiogenesis, so not what we want. The reduction of hyaluronic acid in the skin by aging, sun exposure and air pollutants induces dryness in the skin. However, daily hyaluronic acid supplementation moisturises your skin and makes it healthy. Taking hyaluronic acid alleviates dry skin. It has been proven that oral supplementation of hyaluronic acid reduces wrinkles and results suggest that higher molecular weight has even more of an impact than other molecular weights. Hyaluronic acid counteracts aging processes by its anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging properties. It also causes significant improvements in skin hydration, wrinkles and elasticity. (6)(7)(8)(9)

Hyaluronic acid may protect against many respiratory diseases, assist with wound healing, alleviate dry eyes, protect bone density and reduce painful joints when taken orally. (10)(11)(12)(13)(14)

Hyaluronic acid is also vital for brain health. A lack of hyaluronic acid has led to seizures and diminished brain activity. (15) Hyaluronic acid has a remarkable hydration capacity, and a lack of it causes reduced extracellular space volume in the brain. This space is vital for brain function.

Head trauma, stroke, and other brain insults that initiate epilepsy are known to be associated with an early decrease in high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid. (16)

When taken as a supplement, high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid has a high bioavailability and reaches peripheral tissues, including joints and skin. These findings support reports of biological actions seen after oral administration of high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid in both animal and human studies. This means that supplementing with high molecular weight hyaluronic acid is beneficial for your joint and skin health. (17)

Vitamin D3, K2 & Magnesium

Taken together, animal and human studies suggest that optimal concentrations of both vitamin D and vitamin K are beneficial for bone and cardiovascular health. (1) Vitamin D3 and magnesium are also vital for your bone health. Without magnesium, Vitamin D is neither useful nor safe. Low vitamin D and low magnesium levels are associated with chronic diseases. Magnesium intake is low in populations who consume modern, processed-food diets. (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)

79% of us do not get enough magnesium, and magnesium deficiency can induce a wide range of clinical complications, including painful muscle spasms, osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, irregular heartbeats, and headaches. (7)(8)

Magnesium slows dementia and reduces your chances of cancer. High intake of magnesium is significantly associated with reduced risk of vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D and magnesium deficiency can also lead to mental issues & depression. (9)(10)(11)(12)

Senescent Cells

Senescence is the loss of a cell’s power of division and growth. Once a cell becomes senescent, it remains active and can release harmful substances that may cause inflammation and damage to nearby healthy cells, this is why they are often called “zombie” cells. Senescent cells accumulate as we age. Senescent cells may play a role in the development of cancer and other diseases.

Removing senescent cells is important for health as we age. Something that removes senescent cells is called a “senolytic”. The most potent senolytic we know of is fisetin. (1-4)

Fisetin

Fisetin is the most potent senolytic and can increase lifespan. Fisetin has also shown the potential to fight multiple cancers, protect the brain from strokes, reduce inflammation, reduce seizures, support the immune system and fight many other diseases. (1-5)

Whilst more often used for the above reasons, fisetin has also been shown to reduce depression and boost serotonin levels. (6-7)

Quercetin

Quercetin is a flavonoid that the human body cannot produce. Quercetin has been shown to work in conjunction with resveratrol to reduce the hallmarks of ageing, as well as reduce inflammation, fat cells, blood pressure, body weight and the risk of heart disease. (1)(2)(3)(12)(13)

Quercetin is commonly used to alleviate allergy symptoms and its effects have been proven in many studies. (4)(5) Quercetin has also been studied for its’ great anti-cancer potential, across many different types of cancer. (6)(7)(8)

Quercetin has been shown to significantly reduce early morning stiffness, morning pain, and after-activity pain in those with arthritis. (9) Quercetin can protect your brain from dementia and has even reversed Alzheimer’s disease. (10) 

Finally, quercetin is an anti-diabetic and has been shown to help reduce blood sugar. (11)

Sleep

Sleep is a vital component of health, and the majority of adults struggle with it. Your body shuts off from the outside world and begins its daily clean up. Your brain uses sleep to run checks its hormones and enzymes are in balance. The cells contract and waste is washed away. If this does not happen, then the brain ages much faster and leads to diseases such as dementia. (1)(2)

Sleep is important for mental wellbeing as well as physical. Those lacking in sleep are more likely to be overweight, have disrupted appetites, lose empathy, have more inflammation, have a low immune system, be depressed and suicidal, have impaired brain function and are more susceptible to heart problems. Those sleeping for less than 7 hours per night have up to 26% higher risk of death. (3-11)

Ultimately, sleep is paramount for a long and healthy life. The keys for quality sleep are drinking enough water, having enough melatonin and reducing blue light in the evening. (12-14)

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